Richard Prince: “Untitled (Cowboy). 1989” – Chromogenic print 
In his remarkable and famous photograph Untitled (Cowboy).1989 Richard Prince, re-photographing a photograph made by Sam Abell for a 1980’s Marlboro Man advertising campaign, condenses the sense of appropriation in art, as a practice that directly takes up the analysis Walter Benjamin expressed in his essay The Work of Art in The Age of Mechanical Reproduction.
In his essay Benjamin focuses on photography and film to express the point that reproducibility, and in particular mechanical reproducibility, made possible by the extraordinary improvement of technology in contemporary age, lessens the artwork’s aura. If the artwork loses its uniqueness and authenticity, on the other side, Benjamin argues, it gains a more social and democratic value (becoming widely accessible) but requires a more robust analysis of the politics of art.
The purpose of Appropriationists, as Sherrie Levine, Barbara Krueger and Richard Prince itself, is to critique fine art as an institutional and political practice.
“Prince’s picture is a copy (the photograph) of a copy (the advertisement) of a myth (the cowboy)”. This repetition is even more redundant if we consider that the photographic effect is composed of two acts and two temporalities, the first one when the image is taken, the second one when the image is seen. The infinite repetitions of the dualistic photographic effect, associated with the infinite repetitions of a mythological stereotype (that of the cowboy reiterated by cinema and literature), mirrors that sense of vacuity, of imageless that Sherrie Levine referred to ghosts. “The pictures…are really ghosts of ghosts” she claimed. How to reinforce, give significance, reanimate such pictures? The photographic effect can only be verified through its iterations by the viewer. The appropriation offers the viewers an occasion to see the photographic effect as perceived by the artist, and an occasion to revitalize photographs otherwise forgotten, already seen.
In another political order, Prince’s picture highlights an entire trading and commercial apparatus and its counterpart, a materialist society that is fascinated and attracted by the spectacle offered by media. It deconstruct an American archetype, widely repeated, amplified and consumed by cinema, television and literature, a myth so current in the 80’s since Ronald Reagan, an actor who previously has performed many Hollywood’s cliché, including that of the cowboy, assumed the position of President.
Appropriation in a wide sense is not new in art, all artists learn by copying, by borrowing and using styles and forms from what came before. Michelangelo’s fist remarkable sculpture (according to the biography of Vasari) was a Head of Faunus (unfortunately lost) literally copied by an original Greek sculpture in possession by Lorenzo De’ Medici. Years later his David earned him definitely the fame of “master” revealing his skills of reproducing and reinterpreting the classical Greek-Roman aura. Picasso said that “good artists copy, great artists steal”, a claim that clearly refers to appropriation. Many of his artworks, actually, as well as Braque’s artworks, were composed of objects appropriated by everyday life, like clothes, newspapers, etc. and inserted on the canvas. Marcel Duchamp was among the first artists using “readymade” objects in art, as they were produced. Famous is his piece “Fountain” where he just used an ordinary urinal.
What makes peculiar Appropriationists is their use of objects or images, like in Duchamp’s Fountain, as they are. This way appropriation acquires value as a performative gesture, consisting in choosing a particular image or object (and not others) and in rearranging or recontextualizing it. Also important is the new signature the artist apposes at the appropriated image since it expresses another layer of performative agency. Peggy Phelan’s claims that “signature verifies the authentic, singular subject, while the practice or performance of signing repeats and copies a previous version of the unique signature”.
Sherrie Levine: “After Walker Evans. 1980” – Re-photographed pictures 
Sherrie Levine’s work is emblematic in this aspect. She rephotographed canonical photographs by Walker Evans, Alexander Rodchenko, and Edward Weston from art catalogues and textbooks signing the new discolored, recropped and retitled pictures she obtained with her own signature. In Untitled (Cowboy) we can see the same kind of operation. Formally it is evident the process of reproduction by the blurriness of the sky, incoherent colors, melted details, spread noise. It is evident also that the image is haunted by its ghosts, suspended and displaced as it is, in a controversial mediatic world that promises adventures, memories, myths and dreams. Like every promise we could expect it will be respected or more probably will not. That way it is evoked the eventuality of trauma and a sense of loss.
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modifications to “ready-made” or pre-existing artwork or objects in pursuit of their own art arein fact appropriating art.Modern day art historian, Tom Williams, sheds further light on the developments towards thePop Art movement and the use of art appropriation (Williams, Appropriation Art):
“Although the antecedents of appropriation art have been traced back to the art historical allusions in works by Edouard Manet or Gustave Flaubert’s Dictionnairedes idées reçues (1913), its origins have often been found in early 20th-century avant- garde practices such as collage, photomontage and, especially, the ready-made. These procedures involved the use of found objects as the raw materials or the final form of the work of art. Among these, Marcel Duchamp’s development of the ready-made in1913 was particularly important for later manifestations of appropriation art. In his famous Fountain from 1917, for example, he adopted the pseudonym R. Mutt and submitted a urinal for an exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists in New York.”
Art appropriation in the 20
century begins with Dada artist MarcelDuchamp’s “ready-made” art works such as “Fountain,” (Pohl 346).With the change of one letter on a common urinal echoing his pseudonym, Marcel Duchamp initiates a trend towards artappropriation. Yet, it would take the Pop Art movement to make itubiquitous. Andy Warhol flagrantly made use of “ready-made” imagesand commercial art, challenging conventions of originality in art (Pohl346). Sherry Levine followed up in 1981 by snapping a picture of aPublic Domain photograph taken by Walker Evans. She thencopyrighted it as her own work without making a single modificationto it. Thus, “Fountain” serves as the nascence of art appropriation byAmerican artists, while Levine’s copy of a photograph arguably provides the ultimate conclusion.
Copyright and Public Domain as it Pertains to Art Appropriation
Most countries have their own laws regarding how to obtain a Copyright and how it protects acreated asset. A U.S. Copyright protects “original works of authorship” including literary,dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works within the jurisdiction of theUnited States of America (Copyright Basics). The original author has the right to (CopyrightBasics):
Reproduce their work.
Prepare derivative works.
Distrubute copies of their work.
Perform or display the work publicly.
Fountain, MarcelDuchamp, 1917