Citation is a cure for plagiarism, which is a different, but related, problem from copyright infringement. Plagiarism is the unacknowledged use of the work of another — falsely claiming or creating the impression that you are the creator of someone else’s work. It is possible to plagiarize a work even if it is not protected by copyright; one can plagiarize from Adam Smith, who died in 1790, as easily as from Milton Friedman, who died last year. And citing the source always cures plagiarism.
Citation, however, does not cure copyright infringement, which is the unauthorized use of another’s work. If you copy an entire journal article by someone else, without permission, into a book you publish, you probably have infringed copyright, even if you add a footnote citing the original author and source. Citation may help show a good faith fair use argument, but it neither prevents plagiarism nor guarantees fair use. Copyright infringement is avoided either by having the copyright owner’s permission when using someone else’s material or by relying on one of the many exceptions to copyright.
Copyright, of course, does not protect everything. You cannot infringe a copyright when you use public domain material, especially when you take only ideas from another source but do not copy protected expression, since copyright does not protect ideas. But if you fail to acknowledge the source of those ideas, you may still be guilty of plagiarism.
This is a guide on how to write references for various documents Oxford style intended for footnotes with complete bibliographic information (see Citing references Oxford) and reference lists. This guide is mainly based upon recommendations given in the book The Chicago Manual of style. The essential guide for writers, editors, and publishers. Chicago manual of style 17th ed.
Books with one Author
Include (if available): author’s last name and first name; title; edition (if not 1st); place of publication and publisher, year of publication.
Bryman, Alan. Social research methods. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford university press, 2008.
Books with two or more Authors
Fabozzi, Frank J., Modigliani, Franco and Jones, Frank J. Foundations of financial markets and institutions. 4th ed. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2010.
Books which are Edited (Anthologies)
For edited books include editor(s) in brackets after the name of the editor(s)
Allen, Jeffner and Young, Iris Marion (eds.). The thinking muse: feminism and modern French philosophy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
The same information should be provided as for printed books, see examples above. For books that have been read or downloaded from a library website or bookshop you should add information about e-book at the end of the reference.
Bowen, Natasha K. & Guo, Shenyang. Structural equation modeling. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. E-book.
Some books whose copyright have expired are sometimes freely available on the internet. In those cases you should add the complete URL (http ://....) and access date, the date you downloaded/read the book. If the URL is very long it could be sufficient to use the URL of the web site where you found the book e.g. http://books.google.se/
Smith, Daniel. Memory of a tree festival. Hamburg: Sommer Publishing, 1902. http://www.treesandplantsmemoriesinsummer (Accessed 2012-05-21).
Strindberg, August. Three plays: countess Julie; the Outlaw; the Stronger. Boston: International pocket library, 1912. http://books.google.se/ (Accessed 2012-05-21).
Include (if available): family name(s) and first name(s) of author(s) of book chapter; title of book chapter; In, title of book; first and family name(s) of editor(s) and ed(s) in brackets; edition (if not 1:st); page numbers of chapter; place of publication and publisher; year of publication
Ellet, Elizabeth F.L. By rail and stage to Galena. In Prairie state: impressions of Illinois, 1673-1967, by travelers and other observers, Paul M. Angle (ed.), 271-79. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.
Include (if available): family name(s) and first name(s) of author(s); title of article; journal name; volume and issue; year of publication ; page numbers of article
Lundmark, Linda. Economic Restructuring into Tourism in the Swedish Mountain Range. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 5, no. 1 (2005): 23–45.
Graham, Elspeth and Boyle, Paul. Editorial introduction:(re)theorising population geography: mapping the unfamiliar. International Journal of Population Geography 7, no. 6 (2001): 389-394
Electronic Journal Articles
Same information included as for journal articles (see example above) and a DOI-number. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is used to uniquely identify an object such as an electronic article. DOI-numbers are permanent, which makes it possible to easily locate articles even if the URL of the article has changed. Articles are assigned DOI-numbers by major academic publishers. If there is no DOI-number you should give the URL-link of the article and in some cases access date (mainly articles that are freely available on the internet). Today the publisher often states how to write the reference.
Lundmark, Linda. Economic Restructuring into Tourism in the Swedish Mountain Range. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 5, no.1 (2005): 23–45. doi: 10.1080/15022250510014273.
Larsen, James E. and Blair, John P. The importance of police performance as a determinant of satisfaction with police. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration 1, no.1 (2009): 1-10. http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajeba/ajeba111-10.pdf (Accessed 2010-09-29).
Include (if available): author of article; title of article; magazine and date of article
Jowit, Juliette . Corporate lobbying is blocking food reforms, senior UN official warns. Guardian.10-09-22.
Newspaper Articles on the Internet
Same informaton as for a printed article (see above) and URL of article and date of access in brackets. If the URL is very long it could be sufficient to use the URL of the newspaper e.g http://www.time.com/time/
Jowit, Juliette . Corporate lobbying is blocking food reforms, senior UN official warns. Guardian. 10-09-22. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/sep/22/food-firms-lobbying-samuel-jutzi (Accessed 2010-09-30).
Web Pages/Internet Sources
Include (if available): author, organization, authority or company; (year) ; title of document or page; name of web site or owner of web site; last update of web page ; complete URL (http://.....) and date of access.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Health: OECD says governments must fight fat. 2010. http://www.oecd.org/document/35/0,3343,en_21571361_44315115_46064099_1_1_1_1,00.html
For blogs include title and posting date of individual blog entry:
Parker, Matt. 2010. The simple truth about statistics. Guardian.co.uk Science blog. 29 September. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2010/sep/29/statistics-lies-abuse (Accessed 2010-10-10).
For articles/entries in online encyclopedias include (if available): author of article, title of article, name of encyclopedia, year of publishing,; complete URL (http://.....) and date of access. If there is no author, use the title of the entry or article first.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2010. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/142824/Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease (Accessed 2010-10-30).
Include information about university of graduation and title of degree.
Eckerberg, Katarina. Environmental protection in Swedish forestry: a study of the implementation process. PhD diss., Umeå University, 1987.
Landström, Mats. Two essays on Central Bank independence reforms. Lic. diss., Umeå university, 2009.
Lectures/presentations at conferences and seminars are published in anthologies called proceedings. Title, year and city of conference are to be included if known. Individual contributions to conference proceedings are treated as chapters in books. Sometimes those contributions are published in journals and are treated as journal articles.
Hall, C. Michael. North-south perspectives on tourism, regional development and peripheral areas. In Tourism in peripheries : perspectives from the north and south, Dieter K. Müller and Bruno Jansson (eds.), 19-38. Perspectives on tourism in Nordic and other peripheral areas, 2004, Umeå. Wallingford: CABI, 2007
Illustrations (photographs, figures, diagrams, tables etc.)
Illustrations created by others are often protected by copyright. In those cases you need permission from the copyright owner before you can you use the illustrations in your text. If possible always state the creator of the illustration in the reference list. If you use an illustration in your paper include a caption with the following information image number (e.g. Figure 1), title, creator of illustration and year.
Lennver, Anders. Night against procrastination [Photography]. 2012. http://www.ub.umu.se/nightagainstprocrastion/ (Accessed 2016-04-05).
State the name of the illustrator if different than the author of the work. If available also provide page number of the illustration:
Hazel, Edward.. Prague by day [Photography]. In Czech photography in the twenty-first century, S. Johnson (ed.), 32. Prague: Autumn Publishing, 2015.
If you have viewed an image of a work of art online, you should reference it as an online image, regardless of the original medium. If possible state the name of the artist and the collection:
Turner, Joseph. The Fighting Temeraire [Oil painting]. 1839. The National Gallery [online]. www. nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/josephmallord-william-turner-the-fightingtemeraire (Accessed 2016-04-05).
Lindsjö, Lars. UR Samtiden - Hur kan utåtagerande barn bemötas? [Television]. Stockholm: Sveriges utbildningsradio. 2011. http://uraccess.se/
Personal communication includes more informal sources: e.g. letters, e-mails, phone calls or conversations. Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted, and a copy retained for reference. If you have promised an interviewee anonymity you must keep that promise. You will find more information about rules and guidelines for research at CODEX. http://www.codex.uu.se/en/index.shtml
Please note that personal communication is sometimes not included in the reference list as the sources normally are not traceable. In those cases information about personal communication are provided only in the footnotes. Check with your teacher/supervisor if you are uncertain!
A reference to personal communication should include as much information as possible; name, profession/position, details of personal communication; date
Svensson, Anna; student at Umeå university. Interview 2010-05-11.
Informant 1: Grammar school, Umeå . 12 boys and 12 girls, individual interviews 2010-05-09.
Smith, Veronica; Professor at the department of physics, Umeå University. Northern lights, lecture 2010-03-12.
Please note that e-mail addresses belonging to individuals should only be provided if the owner has given permission.
Lee, Oscar. E-mail. 2008-05-13. < firstname.lastname@example.org >.